The nature and long term consequences of early-onset offending: a study of two NSW birth cohorts

Dr Jason L. Payne1
1Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

In a recent study of the NSW crime decline and the criminal trajectories of two NSW birth cohorts (1984 and 1994), it was shown that the population prevalence of criminal justice contact to age 21 had halved in 10 years. These dramatic changes were exhibited in almost all estimates of crime, with the exception that the prevalence of early-onset offending remained unchanged. In this presentation, we are motivated to explore the apparent stagnation of early-onset offending by examining the similarities and differences between the two cohorts in terms of offence and longer-term offending profiles.  The implications for early intervention and prevention are discussed.


Dr Jason Payne is a Senior Lecturer at the Australian National University. Jason is the undergraduate convenor of the ANU’s criminology program.

Why is juvenile crime declining in Japan and in the other western countries?

Prof. Koichi Hamai1
1Ryukoku University, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan

Contrary to the popular belief that juvenile crime is increasing and becoming more violent, the number of juvenile offenders arrested by the police in Japan has decreased significantly since 2003. This is true in almost all types of crimes. Juvenile correctional facilities including training schools and a juvenile prison have been closed in recent years due to lack of young offenders. In addition, the sudden decrease of juvenile crime can be seen also in many other western countries since 2007. In order to explore reasons of the sudden decrease of juvenile crime in Japan, there is one question to be answered. Is there any police policy change in arresting juvenile offenders or in recording juvenile crime? If not, we should ask the next questions, why juvenile crime has been decreasing and where juvenile offenders have gone. There would be several reasons to be explored, declining birthrate, less use of alcohol and drugs, more commitment to schooling and activities, more satisfaction with living conditions, more surveillance by technology, and more extensive dissemination of smartphone. There is one more question should be answered, why the decrease of juvenile crime in Japan has begun some years earlier than in other countries.


Koichi Hamai graduated from Waseda University in 1984. He had worked in the Ministry of Justice until 2003. He was an editor of the White Paper on Crime between 1995 and 1999. He was responsible for an international victimization survey of Japan in 2000. He has been the author of about 100 national and international publications. He was the editor in chief of the Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology between 2005 and 2011. He currently holds a position as professor of the Faculty of Law at Ryukoku University in Kyoto, Japan.


Pathways to offending for young Sudanese Australians

Dr Stephane Shepherd1
1Swinburne University Of Technology, Alphington, Australia

Many Sudanese Australians have faced re-settlement challenges since migrating to Australia from the late 1990s onwards. Challenges have included language barriers, obtaining stable

housing, acquiring employment, acculturative stressors and discrimination. Moreover, many have been exposed to pre-migratory traumas and family fragmentation. Despite these difficulties, the vast majority of Sudanese Australians have integrated successfully into the fabric of Australian society. Yet a small number of young Sudanese Australians are at-risk for

violence and other criminal activities, resulting in their over-representation in the criminal justice system. These circumstances have been the subject of sustained sensationalised media

coverage in Australia. However, little academic attention has been afforded to these matters. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by identifying the self-reported life

experiences and offending patterns of Sudanese-Australian youth in custody. Findings illuminated a number of key risk factors for justice system contact and opportunities for intervention.


Dr. Stephane Shepherd is a 2018 ARC DECRA fellow and Senior Lecturer in Forensic Mental Health at the Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science. His research explores cross-cultural issues at the intersection of psychology and the criminal justice system. He investigates risk and protective factors for violence and offending and the relationship with mental health, and how these concepts may manifest differently cross-culturally. He has ongoing affiliations with Johns Hopkins University and the University of Sydney. In 2015, he became Australia’s inaugural Fulbright Scholar in Cultural Competence.


Harm goes Mainstream: The Terror of Leisure

Leanne Mcrae1
1Curtin University, Morley, Australia

Discourses of harm within criminology have traditionally circulated through the paradigm of ‘youth’ with concerns emanating in leisure studies around excessive drug taking, drinking, or extreme sports like BASE jumping and parkour. This paper suggests that harm has gone mainstream. It is no longer associated with traditionally marginal ‘youth’ practices. Instead, in the age of terror, harm and deviance have re-located within the mainstream. Terror has moved into spaces of leisure to recode harm in the everyday. ISIS has consistently chosen spaces of and for leisure to attack people in the everyday. The Reina Nightclub in Istanbul, The Bataclan Theatre in Paris, the Ariana Grande Concert in Manchester attacks have shifted terror from the work-based attacks of 9/11 on the Twin Towers and Pentagon, as people arrived for their work day, the 7/7 London Underground and 2004 Madrid train bombings during the rush-hour commute, to consumer spaces of leisure where people are engaging in activities that blur the edges of the mainstream and alternative. This argument suggests that in the post-crash era, the rise of rentier capitalism and decline of traditional employment, leisure spaces have become instrumental places where meanings are struggled over, and in the case of terrorism, it activates an ‘exchange of violences’ that is at the heart of capitalism.

Dr Leanne McRae is a Research Officer with Curtin University with over 30 publications reflecting her interdisciplinary origins within cultural studies in such areas as postcolonial studies, popular culture studies, men’s studies, feminism, pedagogy, city imaging, fashion, popular memory studies, popular music studies, critical disability studies, and physical cultural studies. Her first publication; The Terror of Leisure: Spaces for Harm in a Post-Crash Era is about to be released by Emerald Publishers in the UK.


The society is devoted to promoting criminological study, research and practice in the region and bringing together persons engaged in all aspects of the field. The membership of the society reflects the diversity of persons involved in the field, including practitioners, academics, policy makers and students.

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