Domestic Violence: Albania, as a Post Communist Country in the Balkans

Arbora  Aliaj

Domestic violence, although is one of the most violent widespread human rights in Albania, continues to be less appreciated. Considering multidimensional consequences, in physical, economical, reproductive health, but even in the twisted education in the future generations, on the dominance of fear, bullying, and prepotency, it leads to long term destructive effects for the society. Consequently, has been a widespread difficulty in the perception and understanding among citizens and public officials who currently struggle with their lack of education and in turn resort to the violation of the citizens. The General Prosecutor has in fact registered many cases for a country with the population of 3 million inhabitants, but considering the low level of reporting due to: educational, economic, social reasons, re-victimization, matter which triggered doubts about the real situation. Efforts to explain this phenomenon in a national level, although in their preliminary stages accord this behaviour to factors related to post communism, transition, democracy but also our location as a Balkan country. The research will explore four main areas. Namely, it will shed light upon the definition of domestic violence, the criminology associated with such crimes, the prevalence and tendencies associated with this crime, as well as look into the need to accommodate the needs of the victims of domestic violence and ensure that their rights are not only secure, but that they are also at the foundation of the legislation associated with procedural aspects in this regard.

Arbora Aliaj, hold a B.A. in Law, Faculty of Law, University of Tirana, Albania, and a M.Sc. in Criminal Law, graduated summa cum laude (10/10). This year, I am frequenting the National Chamber of Advocacy and Legal Issues, as an assistant lawyer.

The posts I currently hold include the role of Legal Expert at the Center for Public Information Issues and Representative of YATA Kosovo. In the same time, I am an active member of different

international organizations and projects, such as the AI, OSCE, UNYA, FES, HofA&S etc. Meanwhile, I am in waiting list of new assistant  professors, in the Academy of Security in Albania.

Also I have studied on the matter, different disciplines with scholarships and fellowships as 2016 “Balkan Crime and Criminology”, One- Week Intensive Course, Max Planck Institute for

Foreign and International Criminal Law; “17th Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology”, EuroCrime 2017, Cardiff, Wales. I have been appointed as Delegate of ELSA

International to the Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (CED), 12th Session, Geneva.  I have been chosen in the students working group for the “Judicial Reform” and for drafting “The right to be forgotten” in Albania.

Some of my publications for different international magazines like YATA Kosovo; Consejo Atlantico Juvenil Espanol, Spain; Journal of the Institute of Criminological and Sociological Research, Belgrade, Serbia. Related with my contribution in human rights and criminal process in Albania, I was one of the panelist in “Dialogue and Best Practice International Forum 2016”, Notre Dame University – Louaize (NDU), Lebanon, and a lot of activities in Albania, when I have achieved prizes and awards as New Political Leader of “Elita Politike”.


“A combination of extortion and civic duty”: Reconsidering gangs in ‘weak state’ communities

Richard Evans1
1Deakin University, Geelong, Australia

Gang Studies is an emerging field in criminology. Most scholarship on gang-like groups focus on the local and the particular, and the complex and nuanced nature of gangs does demand this approach. However, it is also true that there are strong patterns of structure, function, origin, and behaviour in gangs which seem to hold despite otherwise large differences in ethnicity, language and culture. In this paper, I attempt to sketch a universal model of gangs — the circumstances in which they will arise, and the forms that they will take.

Drawing on comparative examples, including the Mungiki movement of Kenya and the ormas groups of post-Suharto Bali, I explore implications for how criminologists think about gangs, crime and policing in ‘weak state’ urban communities, where the formal institutions of government are ineffective. I argue that many assumptions about gangs distort understanding and need to be challenged.

Richard Evans is a Lecturer in Criminology at Deakin University. His research interests include gang studies, policing, violence prevention, mental health and crime and media.


Adam Marsden1
1Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Geographic profiling is a tool used to assist investigators to locate the possible operating base of an offender through the analysis of a linked crime series. Theories and principles such as ‘journey to crime’, ‘least effort’ and ‘routine activity’ allows the success of geographic profiling. Because hands-on crimes such as rape, burglary, arson, and murder have the deepest impact on society, geographic profiling is commonly used on these offences to aid in investigative strategies while also providing an intelligence-led policing approach to future crime. Unfortunately, in the past, hands-off crimes such as identity crime, get left behind and have not been assessed as to whether geographic profiling may assist in their investigations.

This presentation uses 13 case studies from the NSW region to determine the average distance to crime of identity offenders involved in ATM skimming. Geographic profiling principles and assumptions are used to explain offender’s modus operandi and target selection. The presentation will explain how criminal’s choice of targets will be influenced by financial institutions particularly leading to the year 2020.

By using slides and tables, the presenter will provide the audience with a greater understanding of identity criminals distances to crime and an understanding of issues relating to target selection.

Adam Marsden in an AFP officer of 12 years’ standing, specialising in fraud investigation. He was part of the AFP’s Identity Security Strike Team investigating criminal misuse of identity documents and was case officer for an investigation resulting in the bringing down of one of Australia’s largest identity crime syndicates.

Mr Marsden has advanced training in Geographic Profiling Analysis through California State University USA and a Masters in Fraud & Financial Crime through Charles Sturt University. He is presently researching at Queensland University of Technology’s Crime and Justice Research Centre, examining the influence of geographic profiling in fraud investigations.

Risk terrain modelling of contemporary Violent Dissident Republican activity in Belfast

Zoe Marchment1, Paul Gill1
1University College London, London, United Kingdom

There is extensive research to suggest that most terrorist offenders are rational and purposeful in their decision making. They will make carefully calculated decisions that are utility maximising and likely to increase their probability of success. These decisions are based on perceived rewards, effort and risk. There have been several analyses demonstrating spatial and temporal variation in risk of terrorist attacks, and most conclude that terrorism is spatially concentrated. However, these spatial analyses were unable to identify the causes of these hotspots – just the fact they exist.

Risk terrain modelling (RTM) was created to assess risk by analysing the level of opportunity a location may offer to an offender seeking a target. Each location has an associated value to an offender, which is determined by the opportunity for crime that it offers. RTM can be used to identify the locations that have the greatest perceived opportunity and therefore pose the highest level of risk.

This study uses RTM to examine the influences of social and physical context on target selection for Violent Dissident Republican activity in Belfast. This method identified multiple significant risk factors for bombings and bomb hoaxes, and differences between the two incident types. The model shows good predictive accuracy in identifying the areas of a city most at risk of a terrorist attack and could be a useful tool in guiding targeted responses to associated threats.

Zoe is currently a final year PhD candidate at the Department of Security and Crime Science, UCL. Her research examines the spatial patterns of terrorist target selection, with a focus on lone actors and Violent Dissident Republican activity. She holds a BSc in Psychology and MSc in Countering Organised Crime and Terrorism. Zoe has worked on projects for the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory; Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST); FP7 Preventing, Interdicting and Mitigating Extremism (PRIME) and the VOX-Pol Network of Excellence.

Dr. Paul Gill is a senior lecturer in Security and Crime Science at University College London. Previous to joining UCL, Dr. Gill was a postdoctoral research fellow at the International Center for the Study of Terrorism at Pennsylvania State University. He has over 50 publications on the topic of terrorist behaviour. He has conducted research funded by the European Research Council, Office for Naval Research, the Department of Homeland Security, DSTL, the European Union, the National Institute of Justice, CREST, Public Safety Canada and MINERVA. These projects focused upon various aspects of terrorist behavior including the IED development, creativity, terrorist network structures, and lone-actor terrorism.

Invisible powers to punish – the epitome of individualised control

Clare Farmer1
1Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Australia

Problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption in and around licensed premises have prompted a range of legislative, regulatory and operational responses. One provision empowers licensees in Victoria, Australia, to formally bar patrons from their venues and the surrounding area. This mirrors similar mechanisms which enable police officers to exclude individuals from public areas for alcohol-related disorderly behaviours. While the rationale for formal licensee barring powers is sound, the manner of their implementation is more problematic.

The imposition of a licensee barring order requires no proof to be documented and it takes effect immediately. Non-compliance is subject to police enforcement and possible criminal breach proceedings. The process through which a barring order can be challenged is ambiguous, and the punishment is served regardless of the review outcome. No data is available to enable assessment of the way in which barring orders are used, who the recipients are, or the number of review requests submitted.

Barring orders extend to non-judicial and non-law enforcement officers a formal discretionary and pre-emptive power to punish. Yet, with no training, monitoring or oversight of their use, Victoria’s licensee barring order powers are open to abuse.

This paper highlights the disconnect between provisions which are implemented to address issues of community safety, but which create the potential for unwarranted punishment, discrimination, and the dilution of individual rights. Licensee barring orders embody the individualised control of problematic behaviours, and continue the steady progression of summary powers to punish that are opaque to scrutiny.

Dr Clare Farmer is a Lecturer in Criminology at Deakin University. Her current research interests include the balance between police powers and individual rights, responses to alcohol-related disorderly behaviours, and sentencing practices.

Impact of the audiovisual executions of the Daesh in the processes of radicalization and jihadist recruitment according to the target audience.

A Trespaderne Dedeu1, M Soria Verde2, N  Querol Viñas3, J de Pablo Bribian4
1University Of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 2University Of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 3University Of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 4Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Audiovisual executions of Daesh are a method of propaganda and they influence the process of radicalization and recruitment. The professionalization, creation, edition and diffusion in the audiovisual of the terrorist organization, has alerted the academics and international institutions. This research analyses the structure of the executions according to the target audience, identifying endogroup, shared ideology or outgroup, being its opposition. The analysis of who they are targeting, allows to establish what criteria the terrorist organization Daesh uses in the construction of the audiovisual to influence the target audience. Having this knowledge, encourages the development of counter narratives as a mean of counteracting and demystifying the propaganda used in the processes of radicalization and recruitment. The sample studied were 12 executions carried out between 2014-2016, using the Protocol of Analysis of Executions of DAESH (PAED) created ad hoc. The variables analysed have been; the victim, the aggressor, the type of execution, the geolocation, the crime scene and the audiovisual, verbal and non-verbal communication elements. The results obtained reveal significant differences in the victim, number of cooperators during the execution, the use of minors during the executions, the type of violence, the reason for the execution, methods of intimidation, physical position, synthetic elements of the audiovisual and communication between victim and aggressor. In conclusion, the results show the differentiation of the characteristics in the audio-visual performances of the Daesh according to the target audience.

Ariadna Trespaderne: Criminologist and social integrator. Master in Profiling and Criminal Behavior Analysis. Master in Crime Analysis and Prevention. Coordinator of the area of ​​criminology and criminal psychology and responsible for the research department of the Community of Intelligence and Global Security. Co-Director of the Observatory for the prevention of violent radicalization.

Miguel Ángel Soria Verde: PhD. In Psychology. Professor of Legal Psychology, Criminal Psychology and Avanced Criminology in the Faculties of Psychology and Law. Director of Profiling and Criminal Behavior Analysis  Master and Legal and Forensic Psychology. Expert in criiminal forensic cases of homicides, rape and child sexual abuse. He has published more than 70 articles and chapters. He has participated in 12 books: Criminal Psychology,, Manual of Legal and Investigative Psychology, Forensic Penal Psychology (Athelier), Violence & Family Homicide, Profiling and Criminal Behavior Analysis and Geografical profiling and more. Forensic researcher in violent crimes (domestic homicide, child pornography, stalking, women trafficking and terrorism).

Nuria Querol i Viñas: Doctor and criminologist, specialist in Cell Biology and Genetics and Biosanitary. Master in Family Violence Treatment. Director of the Observatory of Violence towards animals. Professor of the Prof. Profiling and Analysis of criminal behavior at the University of Barcelona and other international universities. Studies in Psychopathy and Criminal Investigation. Advisory Board Member of the National Sheriffs’ Ass. Member of the NSA / FBI Working Group on NIBRS. Mimebro of the Global Society of Homeland & National Security Professionals & Global Center for Public Safety.

José Miguel de Pablo Bribian: Senior Agent Specialist in Prevention and Investigation of Forest Fires of the Rural Agents of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Member of the Support Group for the Administration of Justice of the Rural Agents of the Generalitat de Catalunya.






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