Police firearms carriage: Are we safer? Are they safer?

R. Sarre

University of South Australia

Corresponding author: rick.sarre@unisa.edu.au

In 2015 in a Sydney, New South Wales court, an offender turned violent, knocking out a prosecutor and having to be restrained by seven police officers. It took five minutes for police to find a pair of handcuffs to complete the restraint. The Police Association argued, in response, that such incidents are among the many reasons police officers should be allowed to carry their weapons in courthouses. He criticised the Chief Magistrate and Sheriff’s Office for continuing to prohibit officers from wearing firearms in court, thereby endangering police and members of the public. The routine arming of police has been debated for decades. This paper will review current themes and trends in Australia and New Zealand regarding not only firearms in court precincts but more generally in patrol activities. Are we safer if police are routinely armed? Are police safer?


Biography

Rick teaches criminology at the law school of the University of South Australia.

Police firearms carriage: Are we safer? Are they safer?

R. Sarre

University of South Australia

Corresponding author: rick.sarre@unisa.edu.au

In 2015 in a Sydney, New South Wales court, an offender turned violent, knocking out a prosecutor and having to be restrained by seven police officers. It took five minutes for police to find a pair of handcuffs to complete the restraint. The Police Association argued, in response, that such incidents are among the many reasons police officers should be allowed to carry their weapons in courthouses. He criticised the Chief Magistrate and Sheriff’s Office for continuing to prohibit officers from wearing firearms in court, thereby endangering police and members of the public. The routine arming of police has been debated for decades. This paper will review current themes and trends in Australia and New Zealand regarding not only firearms in court precincts but more generally in patrol activities. Are we safer if police are routinely armed? Are police safer?


Biography

Rick teaches criminology at the law school of the University of South Australia.

Situational prevention of domestic violence: A review of security-based programs

T. Prenzler

University Of The Sunshine Coast

This paper reports on a literature review of published reports of domestic violence prevention programs involving security applications. The study was unable to identify studies with full experimental designs showing clear evidence of positive effects. However, six programs were identified that showed promising evidence of reduced violence. The best model appears to involve the deployment of home security and mobile duress alarms within a coordinated program of professional support for clients.

Biography

Tim Prenzler is a Professor at the University of the Sunshine Coast and an Adjunct Professor at Griffith University. His interests include crime and corruption prevention, police and security officer safety, and gender in policing. Tim’s books include Civilian Oversight of Police: Advancing Accountability in Law Enforcement (2016, Taylor & Francis, with Garth den Heyer), Contemporary Police Practice (2015, OUP, with Jacki Drew), 100 Hundred Years of Women Police in Australia (2015, AAP), and Understanding and Preventing Corruption (2013, Palgrave, with Adam Graycar).

Paternal filicide: Examining spousal revenge and mental illness

L. Morella

School of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Federation University, Victoria, lindamorella@students.federation.edu.au

Regarded as one of the most heinous crimes, paternal filicide are difficult to comprehend. Highly publicised cases such as the death of the Faquason children and Luke Batty in Victoria, brought . ‘Spousal revenge’ is  . Numerous studies have collat characteristics and explanations of whyfemale offenderscommit filicide. perpetrators of maternal filicide often suffer from mental illness, paternal filicide and mental health.

Addressing and preventing paternal filicide is a concern for . This the notion of spousal revenge mental illness to identify and gain better understanding of of paternal filicide occurring.

By specific mental health issues experienced by paternal filicide offendersit is risk factors . This in turn be used to positive changes within various agencies within policy, practice and legislation. These findings have the potential to improve support and management of members of the community and to predict and prevent further incidents of filicide.

Intimate partner homicide-suicide in Australia and Canada: A cross-country comparison

L. Eriksson*1, M. Dawson2, P. Mazerolle3, S. McPhedran4, R. Wortley5, H. Johnson6

1 Griffith Criminology Institute / School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University
2 Centre for the Study of Social and Legal Responses to Violence / Department of Sociology & Anthropology, University of Guelph 
3 Office of the Vice Chancellor / Griffith Criminology Institute, Griffith University
4 Violence Research and Prevention Program, Griffith University
5 Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science / Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London
6 Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa

*corresponding author: l.eriksson@griffith.edu.au

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of research identifying common risk factors in cases of intimate partner and domestic homicide. However, to date, there have been few, if any, systematic country comparisons of risk factors in cases of intimate partner and domestic homicide. In addition, there has been an inherent assumption in reviews of findings cross-nationally that risk factors are being defined and measured consistently across studies. Thus, a key objective of any systematic cross-country comparison needs to be to ensure to the degree possible that what is being compared is the same in both countries.

The main objective of the current study is to systematically compare the characteristics and context of intimate partner homicide-suicides in Australia and Canada. While rare compared to other violent crime, intimate partner homicide-suicides have devastating effects on families and communities and are a recognized public health concern. These killings often leave children without parents and communities reeling from feelings of helplessness as they try to come to grips with what could have prevented these deaths. As such, identifying similarities and differences in these cases across countries can help identify the necessary interventions that may be unique to specific jurisdictions or common internationally.

We also seek to identify key issues that arise in determining what variables can be compared across countries as well as in defining and measuring the selected variables. Further, the Australian data are drawn from medical examiner files and the Canadian data are drawn from domestic violence death review data. Therefore, we are also able to examine the benefits and challenges of each of these data sources in research that examines domestic-violence related deaths.

Biography

Li Eriksson is a Lecturer in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Griffith University. Her research interests include domestic violence, homicide and criminological theory. Prior to joining Griffith University, Li worked as a Research Assistant at the Department of Criminology at Stockholm University and as a Research Analyst for the Swedish National Council of Crime Prevention.

Rational, motivated students and suitable units: Detecting suspected ghost-writing of unsupervised written assignments

Dr Joe Clare

Murdoch University, School of Law, j.clare@murdoch.edu.au

The expectation that problems cluster in a non-random way and the potential to design and implement targeted problem-prevention strategies provide a suitable platform for evaluating ‘ghost-writing’ (or ‘contract cheating’). Ghost-writing, which is the act of a student commissioning a third-party to produce an unsupervised assessment which they then submit as if it were their own, has been identified in the Australian education sector as a contemporary, growing concern, facilitated by the internet with the potential to undermine current approaches to academic assessment. Based on the covert nature of this activity, comprehensive detection and prevention strategies have yet to be developed. With this in mind, in late 2015, Murdoch University undertook a preliminary analysis of existing institutional assessment data to try and uncover ‘unusual’ patterns relating to discrepancies between supervised and unsupervised assessment items. This process examined almost 4,000 student results from approximately 1,500 students in one School. Consistent with the opportunity theory expectations, this analysis exposed examples of unusually large differences between unsupervised assessments (essays) and supervised assessments (exams). Furthermore, these patterns clustered at the individual level (repeat ‘offenders’) and the unit level (repeat ‘locations’/’targets’). Although in-and-of itself, these are not definitively cases of ghost-writing, the non-random nature of these patterns merits further analysis. This is particularly the case given that this approach could provide an avenue for targeted prevention, which need not result in academic discipline, as it would be possible to reduce both the suitability of high-risk assessment items and the motivation for potential offenders.

Biography

Joe is a Lecturer in Criminology at Murdoch University, Western Australia and has a MA in Criminology and Criminal Justice and a PhD in Forensic Cognition. Joe has worked for universities and governments in Australia and Canada to conduct applied, operations-focused research with emergency first responders and criminal justice agencies. Joe’s research focus is on using available data to contribute to solving applied problems.

School violence and other school risk factors for youth offending in Vietnam – a life history approach

Toan Quang Le 

Ph.D. Student – School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia, Quangtoan.Le@rmit.edu.au; Lequangtoant32@gmail.com.

Youth offending is criminal and other illegal behaviour engaged in by minors who are younger than the statutory age of majority. In recent years, youth offending has become a significant threat to public safety in not only Western but also Asian countries. In Vietnam, instances of youth offending have become more serious with the increase in crimes committed by young people and there was a dramatic increase in the seriousness of youth offending. Especially, there was an increase of the violent and serious crimes committed by young people, such as robbery, murder, rape, and intentionally inflicting injury on others. Therefore, it is significant to investigate the risk factors for youth offending in Vietnam for formulating better intervention programs. Taking Vietnam as the site of the research, this study investigated the life histories of the young incarcerated offenders in three prisons in Vietnam to identify the risk factors for their involvement in youth offending from their life histories. From the findings of this study, various risk factors had been identified in several domains, including individual, family, peers, school, and community risk factors. Among them, school violence appeared to be one of the most common and significant risk factors for youth offending. Besides, other school-related risk factors such as negative attitude to school, dropping out of school, lack of school management, and the co-operation between school and families were also significant in contributing to youth offending. These findings were significant to understand the causes of youth offending, as well as improving the effectiveness of intervention programs in Vietnam.

Biography

Quang Toan Le is a third-year PhD candidate at RMIT University, Australia. Before becoming a student of RMIT University, he worked as a lecturer and researcher at The People’s Police Academy, the largest training and scientific research center of the Vietnamese police force. His area of interests includes criminal investigation and crime prevention.Contact information:School of Global, Urban and Social Studies – RMIT University, AustraliaE-mail: Quangtoan.Le@rmit.edu.au

Violent offending, nonviolent offending, and delinquent behavior: Examining the psychosocial effects of Hong Kong male and female adolescents

H.C.O. Chan

Assistant Professor of Criminology, Department of Applied Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, S.A.R., oliverchan.ss@cityu.edu.hk

Using a sample of 892 secondary schools students from 12 schools, this study aims to explore the gender differences in the prevalence of self-reported violent offending, nonviolent offending, and delinquent behavior among male and female adolescents in Hong Kong. A number of psychosocial characteristics (i.e., self-control, alcohol and drug use, negative temperament, pro-violence attitudes, social bonding, deviant peer influence, and disorganized neighborhood) are used to explore their effect on male and female adolescents in predicting different types of offending behavior. Implications for research and practice in the area of preventing future offending behavior are also discussed.

Biography

Heng Choon (Oliver) CHAN, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Criminology at City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR. His research focuses on sexual homicide, offender profiling, sex offending, homicide, stalking behavior, and criminological issues related to the Asian population. His latest single-authored monograph on sexual homicide, published under Palgrave Macmillan, is in print since April 2015. He is now working on his next edited book, under contract with Routledge, on the psycho-criminological perspective of Asian criminal justice (i.e., police, correctional, and legal psychology). Oliver is an Associate Editor of International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.

The operation of the consorting law in NSW in its first 3 years and recommendations for refining its scope

K. McDonald

Kate McDonald, Senior Investigation Officer, NSW Ombudsman, kmcdonald@ombo.nsw.gov.au

On 9 April 2012, a new consorting law commenced in New South Wales. The NSW Parliament required the NSW Ombudsman to prepare a report on its operation over three years for the Commissioner of Police and the Attorney General. The Attorney General tabled our report in June 2016.

Built on colonial anti-vagrancy laws, the new consorting law is simultaneously located in policing practices of the 1920s and the contemporary trend of preventive policing. It remains a controversial offence involving ‘the criminalisation of ordinarily harmless and seemingly innocent behaviour in order to allow authorities to intervene at an early stage’[1] and attempt to prevent or reduce future offending by stopping people from associating in a ‘criminal milieu’. Consorting is now punishable by up to three years imprisonment and/or a $16,500 fine.

The NSW consorting law has the broadest reach in the country in terms of the class of people with which any person can be charged for consorting, and it is being used by police to a far greater extent. The offence was adopted in South Australia in 2015 and is currently being considered in the ACT.  In our report we outline concerns about use of the consorting law in relation to vulnerable and disadvantaged people and people with no criminal histories. We also outline use of the consorting law to target high-risk Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. We make 20 recommendations aimed to improve the operation of the consorting law and refine its scope.

This paper will present the NSW Ombudsman’s analysis, findings and recommendations regarding the operation of the consorting law and aims to promote informed discussion of the topic.On the Record

[1] David Brown et al., Criminal Laws: Material and commentary on Criminal Law and Processes of New South Wales, The Federation Press, 6th ed, 2015, p. 101.

Biography

Kate McDonald is a senior investigation officer at the NSW Ombudsman’s office.

The operation of the consorting law in NSW in its first 3 years and recommendations for refining its scope

K. McDonald

Kate McDonald, Senior Investigation Officer, NSW Ombudsman, kmcdonald@ombo.nsw.gov.au

On 9 April 2012, a new consorting law commenced in New South Wales. The NSW Parliament required the NSW Ombudsman to prepare a report on its operation over three years for the Commissioner of Police and the Attorney General. The Attorney General tabled our report in June 2016.

Built on colonial anti-vagrancy laws, the new consorting law is simultaneously located in policing practices of the 1920s and the contemporary trend of preventive policing. It remains a controversial offence involving ‘the criminalisation of ordinarily harmless and seemingly innocent behaviour in order to allow authorities to intervene at an early stage’[1] and attempt to prevent or reduce future offending by stopping people from associating in a ‘criminal milieu’. Consorting is now punishable by up to three years imprisonment and/or a $16,500 fine.

The NSW consorting law has the broadest reach in the country in terms of the class of people with which any person can be charged for consorting, and it is being used by police to a far greater extent. The offence was adopted in South Australia in 2015 and is currently being considered in the ACT.  In our report we outline concerns about use of the consorting law in relation to vulnerable and disadvantaged people and people with no criminal histories. We also outline use of the consorting law to target high-risk Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. We make 20 recommendations aimed to improve the operation of the consorting law and refine its scope.

This paper will present the NSW Ombudsman’s analysis, findings and recommendations regarding the operation of the consorting law and aims to promote informed discussion of the topic.On the Record

[1] David Brown et al., Criminal Laws: Material and commentary on Criminal Law and Processes of New South Wales, The Federation Press, 6th ed, 2015, p. 101.

Biography

Kate McDonald is a senior investigation officer at the NSW Ombudsman’s office.

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