Exploring notions of “justice” for individual fraud victims from those across the fraud justice network

Dr Cassandra Cross1
1Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Each year, millions of individuals experience fraud victimisation globally through a variety of approaches. The impacts of fraud can be significant and extend beyond pure financial losses to many non-financial harms. Sadly, there is a consistent body of research that documents the overwhelmingly negative experiences faced by fraud victims in seeking to lodge their complaint with authorities and receive what they perceive to be a satisfactory response to their incident. In some cases, it can be argued that part of any additional trauma suffered by victims is based upon unrealistic expectations of what they can actually expect in terms of an official response by agencies across the fraud justice network (including police/banks/remittance agencies/other government/private sector organisations) contrasted against what they believe is “justice”.

In order to better understand the discrepancies between organisational and individual perspectives, this presentation shares insights from thirty-one professionals across the fraud justice network in London (UK) and Toronto (Canada). Professionals were asked what they thought “justice” looked like for the many fraud victims they interact with. Dominant answers included getting their money back as well as references to traditional criminal justice outcomes (such as arrest, prosecution and imprisonment).

However, given that both of these are unlikely, this has significant implications for how “(in)justice” is experienced in the context of fraud. Combined with what is known from victims, the presentation ponders how justice can be realistically achieved (if at all) for fraud victims and what this might look like.


Dr Cassandra Cross is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Justice, Queensland University of Technology. Previously, she worked as a research/policy officer with the Queensland Police Service, where she commenced research on the topic of online fraud. In 2011, she was awarded a Churchill Fellowship to examine the prevention and support of online fraud victims worldwide. Since taking up her position at QUT in 2012, she has continued her research into online fraud, across the policing, prevention and victim support aspects. With colleagues, she has received highly competitive Criminology Research Grants, the first in 2013 to conduct the first Australian study into the reporting experiences and support needs of online fraud victims, and another in 2016 to examine the policing of cybercrime in Australia. She is co-author (with Professor Mark Button) of the book Cyber frauds, scams and their victims published by Routledge in 2017.

Image Based Sexual Abuse in Singapore

Dr Laura Vitis1
1Queensland University Of Technology (qut), Brisbane, Australia

Image Based Sexual Abuse (IBSA) is readily becoming a key site of analysis for criminologists, particularly feminist scholars seeking to exploring the expanding modalities of violence against women and girls. However, much of the existing empirical scholarship focused on mapping IBSA has been produced within the US, UK, Canada and Australia and there is limited research on this phenomenon within South East Asia. To address this gap, this paper presents findings from an exploratory research project which examined whether IBSA was evident in the case summaries, legal session reports and case management notes collated by a Singaporean women’s, advocacy and support organisation focused on sexual assault support provision. Drawing from this data, this paper highlights Singaporean women’s experiences of IBSA and reports on the range of IBSA evident in these cases. Paying particular attention to: some of the key differences in the IBSA types and contexts presented these findings, as compared to those reported from data emerging in Western nations, and the role of the wider Singaporean socio-political landscape in shaping some of these IBSA modalities.

My research focuses on how technology is used to facilitate gendered, sexual and intimate partner violence. In addition, my work also examines the regulation of and resistance to technologically facilitated violence, youth sexting and the role of risk in the Sex Offender Register. My recent publications include the 2017 edited collection for Routledge entitled Gender, Technology and Violence (with Marie Segrave). I have recently moved to Queensland from Singapore, where I was teaching at the University of Liverpool in Singapore (ULiS)


Digital Predictions: Putting Cybercrime Victimization Theories to the Test

Caitlyn McGeer1
1University Of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

This study analyzes the validity of the leading theory explaining cyber victimization, Routine Activities Theory, as well as the two other theories gaining influence, the Big Five and E-Trust. The study seeks to develop upon prior research that tested the validity of these theories by assessing how they apply to cyber-victimization in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom Home Office defines cybercrime as either cyber- dependent (those different than offline crime) and cyber-enabled (those which brought offline crime online). Based on this distinction, using the 2014-2015 Crime Survey of England and Wales, the author used statistical analyses to test the validity of Routine Activities Theory, the Big Five, and E-Trust in relation to cyber-dependent and cyber-enabled victimization. The study found that Routine Activities Theory has modest applicability to cyber-dependent victimization and that only the theory’s guardianship variables related to cyber-enabled victimization. The Big Five variables were not related to either type of cyber-victimization, and E-Trust variables were only associated with cyber-dependent victimization. The control variables age, gender, and having children under the age of 16 were associated with cyber-dependent victimization, but only age was correlated to cyber-enabled. The author concludes that distinct differences exist between offline crime and cybercrime and that theories created the explain offline crimes do not adequately extend to cybercrime.

Caitlyn’s professional background centers on capacity building premised on securing welfare and rights protections. She is a strategic development and impact assessment specialist. Caitlyn has worked extensively on both local, national, and transnational-level projects, including ones in the UK, Canada, Guatemala, Ghana, and Ecuador. She has held senior management and front-line roles for a variety of non-governmental, governmental, and United Nations entities. Caitlyn currently leads on developing and implementing public sector monitoring and evaluation frameworks for a UK-based research company. Caitlyn’s doctoral research focuses on analyzing policing responses to modern slavery, focusing on the influence of Internet technologies therewithin.


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