Southern penalities

Russell Hogg1

1 Queensland University of Technology

In their introduction to The Sage Handbook of Punishment and Society the editors trace the emergence of ‘punishment and society’ as an assured and exciting field of contemporary scholarship. They acknowledge its multi-disciplinary character, warn against disciplinary capture and champion intellectual openness as the surest guarantee of continuing vitality in future scholarship. In keeping with this message of ‘openness to new and less familiar bodies of knowledge’ they suggest that future research must reflect ‘the gathering awareness of the need to extend the study of punishment-in-societies beyond the traditional heartlands of the north-Atlantic cultural space and into the global south and east..’ (p4)

This is a welcome invitation although it leaves open the interpretation that the theories and perspectives on ‘punishment and society’ developed in the ‘heartlands’ of the North are to be simply ‘extended’ southwards and eastwards: applied to other societies to generate new bodies of empirical knowledge that validate (or otherwise) northern theory, thus reinforcing an assumption that theory generalized from the north Atlantic experience affords a universal framework of understanding and analysis. On the other hand, what they describe as the ‘primacy of topic over perspective’ in the field opens up the possibility of a deeper engagement with, and on-going reconstruction of, punishment and society scholarship.

To this end the paper is concerned with the project of extending punishment-in-societies scholarship to global South experiences and developments in penality of historical and contemporary significance, with particular reference to the experience of transportation and convictism in the South (and especially the founding of British penal colonies in Australia).

Folded into the experience of north Atlantic societies upon which most punishment and society scholarship has been based are other neglected and under-theorised histories and geographies. The point therefore is not, or not simply, to add further localized studies to the field or to pit South against North, but to bring to the surface the many ways in which South and North are together implicated in histories, practices, cultures (and penalities) that are global in character and scale, and to initiate projects in scholarship and theory that reflect and explicate those connections and their effects.

Southern penalities

Russell Hogg1

1 Queensland University of Technology

In their introduction to The Sage Handbook of Punishment and Society the editors trace the emergence of ‘punishment and society’ as an assured and exciting field of contemporary scholarship. They acknowledge its multi-disciplinary character, warn against disciplinary capture and champion intellectual openness as the surest guarantee of continuing vitality in future scholarship. In keeping with this message of ‘openness to new and less familiar bodies of knowledge’ they suggest that future research must reflect ‘the gathering awareness of the need to extend the study of punishment-in-societies beyond the traditional heartlands of the north-Atlantic cultural space and into the global south and east..’ (p4)

This is a welcome invitation although it leaves open the interpretation that the theories and perspectives on ‘punishment and society’ developed in the ‘heartlands’ of the North are to be simply ‘extended’ southwards and eastwards: applied to other societies to generate new bodies of empirical knowledge that validate (or otherwise) northern theory, thus reinforcing an assumption that theory generalized from the north Atlantic experience affords a universal framework of understanding and analysis. On the other hand, what they describe as the ‘primacy of topic over perspective’ in the field opens up the possibility of a deeper engagement with, and on-going reconstruction of, punishment and society scholarship.

To this end the paper is concerned with the project of extending punishment-in-societies scholarship to global South experiences and developments in penality of historical and contemporary significance, with particular reference to the experience of transportation and convictism in the South (and especially the founding of British penal colonies in Australia).

Folded into the experience of north Atlantic societies upon which most punishment and society scholarship has been based are other neglected and under-theorised histories and geographies. The point therefore is not, or not simply, to add further localized studies to the field or to pit South against North, but to bring to the surface the many ways in which South and North are together implicated in histories, practices, cultures (and penalities) that are global in character and scale, and to initiate projects in scholarship and theory that reflect and explicate those connections and their effects.

Southern penalities

Russell Hogg1

1 Queensland University of Technology

In their introduction to The Sage Handbook of Punishment and Society the editors trace the emergence of ‘punishment and society’ as an assured and exciting field of contemporary scholarship. They acknowledge its multi-disciplinary character, warn against disciplinary capture and champion intellectual openness as the surest guarantee of continuing vitality in future scholarship. In keeping with this message of ‘openness to new and less familiar bodies of knowledge’ they suggest that future research must reflect ‘the gathering awareness of the need to extend the study of punishment-in-societies beyond the traditional heartlands of the north-Atlantic cultural space and into the global south and east..’ (p4)

This is a welcome invitation although it leaves open the interpretation that the theories and perspectives on ‘punishment and society’ developed in the ‘heartlands’ of the North are to be simply ‘extended’ southwards and eastwards: applied to other societies to generate new bodies of empirical knowledge that validate (or otherwise) northern theory, thus reinforcing an assumption that theory generalized from the north Atlantic experience affords a universal framework of understanding and analysis. On the other hand, what they describe as the ‘primacy of topic over perspective’ in the field opens up the possibility of a deeper engagement with, and on-going reconstruction of, punishment and society scholarship.

To this end the paper is concerned with the project of extending punishment-in-societies scholarship to global South experiences and developments in penality of historical and contemporary significance, with particular reference to the experience of transportation and convictism in the South (and especially the founding of British penal colonies in Australia).

Folded into the experience of north Atlantic societies upon which most punishment and society scholarship has been based are other neglected and under-theorised histories and geographies. The point therefore is not, or not simply, to add further localized studies to the field or to pit South against North, but to bring to the surface the many ways in which South and North are together implicated in histories, practices, cultures (and penalities) that are global in character and scale, and to initiate projects in scholarship and theory that reflect and explicate those connections and their effects.

Deciphering crime systems through forensic science: The emergence of interdisciplinary approaches

Claude Roux1, Marie Morelato1, Frank Crispino2, Olivier Delémont3 and Olivier Ribaux3

1Centre for Forensic Science, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney.Forensic Science Research Group and International Centre for Comparative Criminology, Department Of 2Chemistry, Biochemistry And Physics, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada.
3School Of Criminal Justice, Faculty of Law, Criminal Justice, and Public Administration, Université de Lausanne, Switzerland.

 

In their daily activities, forensic scientists (in the field or in the laboratory) recurrently detect, collect, analyse and interpret the relics of criminal activities. Through traces, they reconstruct and explain what occurred in the past and detect patterns of repetitive crime activities. They are privileged observers through their ongoing confrontation to crime, and the consequent experience and expertise in interpreting forensic case data they have gained over time. It is therefore argued that, in addition to its traditional investigative and court functions, forensic science can help decipher crime mechanisms that can subsequently inform on disorders, deviant behaviours or more broadly on crime, and ways to deal with it. It can guide strategic, operational and tactical decisions to disrupt and prevent crimes. It can also provide new frameworks for studying crime or security issues through the integration of a broad variety of forensic data with other crime-related data.

Seen through this lens, forensic science appears to be closer to criminology and other social sciences interested in crime and security than traditional laboratories built upon natural sciences. For this reason, it invites research to become more collective and interdisciplinary to address contemporary security and criminological problems. This presentation will discuss opportunities and challenges related to such interdisciplinary approaches through recent examples. Ultimately, it is argued that, through this expansion, forensic science becomes more efficient and more effective in its service delivery as well as better suited to modern intelligence-led policing.

Motherhood under sentence

Emeritus Professor Lucy Frost, University of Tasmania

 

Convict women serving sentences to transportation lost parental control over their children. Among the almost 13,000 women transported to Van Diemen’s Land, many were already mothers at the time of their trials. Some brought their children with them on the convict ships, most did not. Many of these women—who did not serve their sentences in prison—gave birth while under sentence. This paper examines the experiences of the convict mothers, and of their children.

Biography

Lucy Frost is Emeritus Professor of English at the University of Tasmania and a member of the Founders and Survivors Research Team. Since coming to Tasmania in 1997, her research has focussed on narrating the lives of convict women. While she was a member of the Board of the Cascades Female Factory Historic Site (2001-2012), she co-founded the research group which is now the Female Convicts Research Centre, with more than 4,000 members, and until  2015 she was the president. She co-edited (with Hamish Maxwell-Stewart) Chain Letters: Narrating Convict Lives (2001); wrote the guide to the Cascades Female Factory, Footsteps and Voices (2004); was a founder of Convict Women’s Press and editor of three of their books: Female Convicts at the Ross Female Factory (2011); Convict Lives at the Launceston Female Factory (co-edited with Meredith Hodgson, 2013); and From the Edges of Empire: Convict Women from beyond the British Isles (2015). Her study of Scottish convicts, Abandoned Women, was published by Allen & Unwin in 2012. At present she is one of the four members of the “Footsteps towards Freedom” project team whose vision of an iconic sculpture remembering the arrival of the convict women and their children will be realised in 2017 when figures created by the Irish sculptor Rowan Gillespie are installed on the Hobart waterfront. Her current research project is a study of the children apprenticed from the Queen’s Asylum for Destitute Children (formerly the Queen’s Orphan Schools) in Hobart 1860-1880.

Police firearms carriage: Are we safer? Are they safer?

R. Sarre

University of South Australia

Corresponding author: rick.sarre@unisa.edu.au

In 2015 in a Sydney, New South Wales court, an offender turned violent, knocking out a prosecutor and having to be restrained by seven police officers. It took five minutes for police to find a pair of handcuffs to complete the restraint. The Police Association argued, in response, that such incidents are among the many reasons police officers should be allowed to carry their weapons in courthouses. He criticised the Chief Magistrate and Sheriff’s Office for continuing to prohibit officers from wearing firearms in court, thereby endangering police and members of the public. The routine arming of police has been debated for decades. This paper will review current themes and trends in Australia and New Zealand regarding not only firearms in court precincts but more generally in patrol activities. Are we safer if police are routinely armed? Are police safer?


Biography

Rick teaches criminology at the law school of the University of South Australia.

Police firearms carriage: Are we safer? Are they safer?

R. Sarre

University of South Australia

Corresponding author: rick.sarre@unisa.edu.au

In 2015 in a Sydney, New South Wales court, an offender turned violent, knocking out a prosecutor and having to be restrained by seven police officers. It took five minutes for police to find a pair of handcuffs to complete the restraint. The Police Association argued, in response, that such incidents are among the many reasons police officers should be allowed to carry their weapons in courthouses. He criticised the Chief Magistrate and Sheriff’s Office for continuing to prohibit officers from wearing firearms in court, thereby endangering police and members of the public. The routine arming of police has been debated for decades. This paper will review current themes and trends in Australia and New Zealand regarding not only firearms in court precincts but more generally in patrol activities. Are we safer if police are routinely armed? Are police safer?


Biography

Rick teaches criminology at the law school of the University of South Australia.

Selling research to police – the UK agenda

Professor Jenny Fleming

University of Southampton

The What Works concept in the United Kingdom is a national approach to prioritizing the use of evidence in policy decision-making. The initiative aims to improve the way government and its agencies create, share and use high quality evidence. What Works is based on the principle that good decision-making should be informed by the best available evidence. The What Works Centre for Crime Reduction (WWCR) is part of the ‘What Works’ network led by the College of Policing (COP). In outlining the benefits of the WWCR Centre, the COP anticipates that ‘evidence will be translated into practical insights that the police service and their partners can easily use’ and ‘will be provided on the most effective approaches that can help prevent crime’. As part of the consortium programme the author led the research into how police officers responded to the idea of evidence based practice and how they adapted to pilot training schemes that introduced the principles of research and evaluation to officers/staff.
The paper discusses police officers’ response to this evidence based agenda. It discusses officers’ concerns about their perceived ability to work effectively with an evidence base. These concerns are linked to officers’ perceptions about ‘permission to fail’, organisational constraints, management buy-in and appetite for innovation. Officers agree that evidence based policing is a positive thing overall but question its viability in practice. The presentation draws on data from all ranks, across four police organisations in the UK. Data was obtained through the pilot training evaluation on the use of evidence based research in police practice in September 2015.

Biography

Professor Fleming joined the University of Southampton as Professor of Criminology in 2012 where she is also the Director of the Institute of Criminal Justice Research. Previously she was the Director of the Tasmanian Institute of Law Enforcement Studies (TILES) at the University of Tasmania. Professor Fleming’s expertise lies in collaborative research with police. Currently, she is part of the University Consortium in partnership with the College of Policing, UK, supporting a programme for the What Works Centre for Crime Reduction.

She is interested in organizational imperatives that impact on the way in which ‘police do business’ and has published widely in this area. Her book, Police Leadership, ‘Rising to the Top’ was published by Oxford University Press in 2015. Professor Fleming is the Editor-in-Chief of Policing and Society, an international journal of research and policy, the leading policing peer-reviewed journal in the UK.

Selling research to police – the UK agenda

Professor Jenny Fleming

University of Southampton

The What Works concept in the United Kingdom is a national approach to prioritizing the use of evidence in policy decision-making. The initiative aims to improve the way government and its agencies create, share and use high quality evidence. What Works is based on the principle that good decision-making should be informed by the best available evidence. The What Works Centre for Crime Reduction (WWCR) is part of the ‘What Works’ network led by the College of Policing (COP). In outlining the benefits of the WWCR Centre, the COP anticipates that ‘evidence will be translated into practical insights that the police service and their partners can easily use’ and ‘will be provided on the most effective approaches that can help prevent crime’. As part of the consortium programme the author led the research into how police officers responded to the idea of evidence based practice and how they adapted to pilot training schemes that introduced the principles of research and evaluation to officers/staff.
The paper discusses police officers’ response to this evidence based agenda. It discusses officers’ concerns about their perceived ability to work effectively with an evidence base. These concerns are linked to officers’ perceptions about ‘permission to fail’, organisational constraints, management buy-in and appetite for innovation. Officers agree that evidence based policing is a positive thing overall but question its viability in practice. The presentation draws on data from all ranks, across four police organisations in the UK. Data was obtained through the pilot training evaluation on the use of evidence based research in police practice in September 2015.

Biography

Professor Fleming joined the University of Southampton as Professor of Criminology in 2012 where she is also the Director of the Institute of Criminal Justice Research. Previously she was the Director of the Tasmanian Institute of Law Enforcement Studies (TILES) at the University of Tasmania. Professor Fleming’s expertise lies in collaborative research with police. Currently, she is part of the University Consortium in partnership with the College of Policing, UK, supporting a programme for the What Works Centre for Crime Reduction.

She is interested in organizational imperatives that impact on the way in which ‘police do business’ and has published widely in this area. Her book, Police Leadership, ‘Rising to the Top’ was published by Oxford University Press in 2015. Professor Fleming is the Editor-in-Chief of Policing and Society, an international journal of research and policy, the leading policing peer-reviewed journal in the UK.

Convict transportation and life course offending in the 19th century

Professor Hamish Maxwell-Stewart

Associate Dean Research, Faculty of Arts, University of Tasmania

Because of the detailed nature of the information included in transportation records it is possible to follow many of the convicts landed in Van Diemen’s Land over the course of their lives. Using data for 60,000 male and female prisoners arriving in the period 1816-1853 this paper will look at the relationship between conviction prior to arrival in Australia, under sentence and post release. It is particularly interested in exploring the factors that heightened the risk of prosecution in both Britain and the Australian colonies.

Biography

Hamish Maxwell-Stewart is a Professor in the School of Humanities at the University of Tasmania. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh, he worked for the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, University of Glasgow, before joining the University of Tasmania. He has authored or co-authored a number of books on convict transportation including Closing Hell’s Gates (2008). His most recent work explores the impact of different penal regimes on the health and life course conviction rates for past populations of prisoners. He is also interested in the intergenerational impacts of transportation to Australia.

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