Typologies of online CEM offenders – looking back, looking forward

A/Prof. Tony Krone1
1University Of Canberra, Fraser, Australia

This paper reviews the development of typologies of online CEM offenders drawing together perspectives from criminology, psychology and law. It questions their utility and applicability given changes in the online environment and the ways in which people interact online. Possible future directions in research and ways of enhancing online typologies will be canvassed.


Tony Krone works in the areas of crime and criminology at the University of Canberra with a special emphasis on cybercrime and the problem of online child sexual exploitation

Legal and Theoretical Frameworks for Responding to Online Political Extremism: Lessons for the Australian Context

Dr Imogen Richards1
1Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Australia

In recent years, societies internationally have experienced an intensification and escalation of online political extremism. This has related to, amongst other things, attacks perpetrated by neo-jihadist organisations, the international mobilisation of far-right political entities, and a mass displacement of people from Africa and the Middle East, in what has been described as “the largest humanitarian crisis since the creation of the United Nations [in 1945]” (UN News 2017).

Extreme political polarisation, or the ‘hyper-tribalism’ of those with politically extreme views, has also been reinforced by these entities’ participation in social media. Political polarisation and extremism is in particular facilitated by the architectures of social media platforms, which comprise of ‘bubble bias’ algorithms, and the re-mediating functions of ‘likes’, ‘shares’, and ‘re-tweets’.

This paper reflects on characteristics of social media that can be perceived to encourage violent extremism, and legislation that has been developed internationally to prevent and counter  online violent extremist expression. It combines a socio-legal analysis of hate speech laws and national security legislation, with insights from media theory, to identify characteristics of extremist media which to this point have been under-explored and under-addressed. Drawing from high profile international cases and situations, the paper proposes policy lessons for addressing online extremism in the Australian context.

UN News 2017, “UN aid chief urges global action as starvation, famine loom for 20 million across four countries”, United Nations, accessed 30 May 2018, https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/03/553152-un-aid-chief-urges-global-action-starvation-famine-loom-20-million-across-four


Imogen is a member of the Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation, and a lecturer in criminology at Deakin University. She has written and published on the political-economy of neo-jihadist organisations, terrorist, counterterrorist, and extremist communications, and the ethical dimensions of hacktivism, among other subjects. She has presented aspects of her work on comparative extremism research at events including the 2016 Vox-Pol: Mid-Project Conference: Taking Stock of Research on Violent Online Extremism at Dublin City University in the Republic of Ireland, and the 2017 Terrorism and Social Media conference at Swansea University in Wales.



Ransomware: Crime script analysis

Dr Susan Goldsmid1, Merryn King1, Georgina Fuller1

1Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission, Barton, Australia

Ransomware is a form of malware that renders the victim’s computer unusable or inaccessible. A ransom is then demanded from the victim, which the ransomers state will result in the provision of the decryption key. Instructions for ransom payments are often left in files created by the malware and saved in various locations on the victim’s computer, or provided via an email address that the victim is instructed to contact. Ransomware generates hundreds of millions of dollars in losses annually for individuals, and organisations, many of whom never regain access to their computer files. WannaCry, NotPetya and Petya are some of the most well known forms of ransomware. This presentation will outline ransomware crime script analysis findings, and include a discussion of the pseudo-franchise model, dubbed ransomware-as-a-service. A discussion of trends in ransomware attacks domestically will be supported by trend analysis based on victim experiences as reported to the Australian Cybercrime Online Reporting Network.


Dr Susan Goldsmid is the resident Criminologist and Manager Strategic Intelligence, Research & Engagement within Cybercrime Intelligence at the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission. Prior to this role, Susan was a Principal Research Analyst with the Australian Institute of Criminology, where she led a research program exploring the future workforce and technical capability requirements of Australian law enforcement.

She has extensive experience of working on law enforcement related issues, having previously had an established career as a sworn member within the Australian Federal Police, holding various roles in operational, intelligence and training areas.



Transnational white nationalism: The digitally-mediated globalism of contemporary hate culture

Dr Robin Cameron1
1RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

This paper seeks to delve beneath the populist rhetoric of white nationalism in order to highlight the complex transnational solidarities that underpin digital hate culture. The 2016 election of Donald Trump represented the culmination of a series of reactionary political movements that rose to prominence throughout Europe and in settler colonial countries such as Australia. While this nationalist rhetoric works very well for the purposes of electoral populism, it is important to note that it is underpinned by complex, often contradictory, interconnected technosocial cultures of patriarchal white supremacy. It is the contention of this paper that these reactionary movements should be seen as related and co-productive rather than similar yet isolated. Towards this end this paper will suggest that there are three key factors vital to understanding this as a global phenomenon; whiteness, patriarchy and digital platforms.


Robin’s research focuses on technology, masculinity and extremist violence in urban and online spaces. This is part of a larger collaborative Digital Criminology project. He has also conducted research into 9/11, the war on terror and security responses to other crises such as disasters and protests.


‘Cyber rape’: Exploring Revenge Porn from a Psychological Perspective

Dr Tiffany Lavis1, Ms Tegan Starr2, Ms Tahlee Mckinlay3
1Flinders University, Bedford Park, Australia, 2University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 3University of New England, Armidale, Australia

Revenge porn, often referred to as ‘cyber rape’, is taking what we know about technology, and the sharing of images, and introducing a more sinister and permanent element. Victims of this emerging crime are experiencing many of the same psychological effects as victims of sexual assault, but the convenience of this crime has the potential to impact individuals on a much broader scale. Given the recency of a legislative response, revenge porn is an under explored research area, but one which requires considerable focus given the potential for harm. This presentation outlines two experiments which explore revenge porn in light of psychological theory, including the impact of differing levels of nudity in intimate images, and how factors such as the mode of sharing an image and individual differences might impact. Considering revenge porn from a victimisation viewpoint, this research outlines possible pathways for improving outcomes for victims of this crime.


Dr Tiffany Lavis is a registered psychologist with experience in the forensic field working with victims of crime, as well as work with sexual and other violent offenders. Dr Lavis has over 12 years of experience in academia where she has taught the topic Psychology, Crime and the Law as part of the Flinders Law School. Dr Lavis currently works as a consultant psychologist completing medico-legal psychological assessments for Victims of Crime Compensation.

Tegan Starr completed her Honours degree in psychology at Flinders University in 2017.  She is currently in her first year of studying a Masters of Health Psychology at the University of Adelaide. Tegan has experience volunteering and working in youth mental health, both in Australia and overseas.

Tahlee Mckinlay has a Bachelor of Psychological Science (Honours) degree from Flinders University and is currently undertaking her Masters at the University of New England. Tahlee has experience in an administrative role working with a private psychologist. She is interested in pursuing a career in the forensic psychology field.


The society is devoted to promoting criminological study, research and practice in the region and bringing together persons engaged in all aspects of the field. The membership of the society reflects the diversity of persons involved in the field, including practitioners, academics, policy makers and students.

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