Violence, Massacre and Gun Control: Contextualising the New Zealander Experience

Professor Richard Harding1, Mr Chris Dawson APM2, Mr Mike Clement3, Professor Rick Sarre4

1University Western Australia

2Western Australia Police Force

3New Zealand Police

4University of South Australia

The mass murders in Christchurch starkly revealed the hazards of loose firearms ownership regulations, both as to types of gun and eligible owners. New Zealnd responded by looking to Australia’s post-Port Arthur model. This Panel will explore the way in which this model is being implemented. The broader questions of the likely impact of such laws upon gun violence of all types, with reference to Australian experience and in contrast to USA experience. The challenges faced by Police authorities in managing gun control issues are an important aspect of the Australian/New Zealand approach, and these will be addressed.


Professor Richard Harding, Emeritus Professor University Western Australia

Mr Chris Dawson APM, Commissioner of Police, Western Australia Police Force

Mr Mike Clement, Deputy Commissioner, New Zealand Police

Professor Rick Sarre, Dean of Law, School of Law, University of South Australia

Who Forecasted It Better? The Battle Between Human Cops and Machine Learning to Predict Future Offending

Dr Geoffrey Barnes


Advanced statistical techniques are getting better with every passing month, and can be enormously accurate in predicting some kinds of future events.  While these efforts aren’t very common in the criminal justice system – at least not yet – they bring with them an enormous amount of controversy.  Are these statistical methods really all that accurate?  Are they ethical?  Do they mirror the same biases that already exist in the criminal justice system?  Should criminal justice systems be based upon what we think offenders will do in the future, or should we focus only on what they have done in the past?  Previous research has already examined the base levels of accuracy that machine learning can produce when forecasting future offending.  But until now, we haven’t been able to compare these results to the kinds of predictions that ordinary police officers have been making (often quite informally) for the last hundred years.  This paper will examine several different predictive analytics models from a variety of policing jurisdictions, and examine how these forecasts differ from the predictions made by human police officers for the exact same cases.  Who is better at identifying future criminal behaviour?  Man or machine?  This paper will attempt to find out.


Bio to come

Working with public and private organisations to counter violent extremism

Kosta  Lucas

The concept of “community resilience” is at the heart of all community-initiatives that aim to prevent and counter violent extremism. However, like the term “radicalisation”, it is a loosely defined term, and the conceptual gaps are becoming much clearer in the face of emerging extremist groups and ideologies, particularly right wing extremism. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight, from a practitioner’s perspectives, how current conceptualisations of “community resilience” are limited, and how they can be adapted, with a particular emphasis on cross-discipline collaboration and multi-stakeholder partnerships.


Bio to come


Prison Spaces for Rehabilitation: Contemporary Applications

Mrs Friederika Hackler1

1Swinburne University Of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia

This study explores prison spaces in the state of Victoria, Australia, examining whether they are designed with sufficient preliminary research or with a specific focus on rehabilitation. It is suggested that simply focusing on security and basic infrastructure, with little commitment to understanding the user needs has been resulting in a problematic result for the Victorian population rates. The design outcomes have been generally sterile spaces, limited to poorly vegetated garden beds, sports and recreation areas, concrete seats, and paths. Finally, spaces can be of great value for rehabilitation practices (e.g. healing gardens) and may represent important outcomes in prisoner’s rehabilitation outcomes.

This research investigates and position Victorian active prison spaces and their evolution, attempting to understand whether the changes are random consequences of unplanned factors (e.g. increase of prison population, accidents, riots, an unintentional reflex of events’ mitigation); or if there is intentional design research behind the current results. By combining interview data with architects, spatial syntax methodology and studies investigating levels of anxiety and sick calls the research will investigate how correlations can inform future prison design.


Friederika completed a Bachelor of Architecture and Urban Planning from the Federal University of Bahia; a Master of Design from the Swinburne University of Technology, and is currently a Ph.D. student. Her interests include psychology factors determined by the architectural spaces, and her current research focus is on the prison environment.

Preventing abuses in prisons?  Current and future prison monitoring and the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (OPCAT)

Prof Bronwyn Naylor1, Dr Anita Mackay2, Mr Wayne Lines3, Mr Steven Caruana4, Emeritus Professor Richard Harding5

1RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia,

2LaTrobe University, Bundoora, Australia

3South Australian Ombudsman

42017 Churchill Fellow 

5Law School University of Western Australia

Robust independent monitoring can provide vital protection for people held in detention.  The Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (OPCAT) introduces a new regime for monitoring places where people are deprived of their liberty (such as prisons, immigration detention, juvenile detention and police custody).  Australia ratified the OPCAT in December 2017 and by December 2019 will only have one more year to establish the national-level monitoring required by the OPCAT (known as a National Preventive Mechanism (NPM)).

This roundtable will focus on prisons as one of the major places to which OPCAT applies.  Drawing on the combined expertise of prison inspectors, Ombudsman Offices, and academics from around Australia, it will explore (1) monitoring as it has been conducted for many years by Prison Inspectorates (eg the first Inspectorate in WA, and the more recent Inspectorates in NSW, Tasmania and the ACT) and Ombudsman Offices (eg the South Australian Ombudsman, and the Victorian Ombudsman, who has already conducted two OPCAT-compliant inspections) (2) how prison monitoring may change once the OPCAT is fully operational in Australia and (3) the challenges associated with ensuring Australian prison monitoring complies with the OPCAT requirements.


Bronwyn Naylor is Professor of Law in the Graduate School of Business and Law, RMIT University, joining RMIT at the end of 2016 after many years at Monash University.  She has been teaching, researching and publishing in criminal law,  human rights, and corrections for over 25 years.  Bronwyn has been lead researcher on several ARC-funded projects, including the ARC Linkage project ‘Applying Human Rights in Closed Environments: A Strategic Framework for Compliance’ (2011-2014), and has published extensively on prison monitoring and on the ratification of OPCAT.  She is currently a member of the Advisory Group to the Victorian Ombudsman’s OPCAT-focussed inspection of the use of solitary confinement in places where children and young people are detained.


Mr Wayne Lines was appointed as the South Australian Ombudsman in December 2014.  He has carried out frequent investigations of South Australian prisons since his appointment.   Prior to this appointment Mr Lines was the South Australian WorkCover Ombudsman (from 2008 – 2014) and he also worked for the Crown Solicitor’s Office for sixteen years where he undertook a diverse range of work within the Civil Litigation Section and represented government in courts and tribunals.  Mr Lines is a member of the Australian and New Zealand Ombudsman Association (ANZOA), which is the peak body for Ombudsmen in Australia and New Zealand.


In 2018 Mr Steven Caruana completed a Churchill Fellowship titled Enhancing best practice inspection methodologies for oversight bodies with an Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture focus.  Report to the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia showcasing learning from Greece, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, UK, Malta and New Zealand.  Mr Caruana is currently a Senior Policy Officer at the Aged Care Quality and Safety Commission and has previously worked for the Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services in Western Australia, and as an Immigration Detention Inspector for the Commonwealth Ombudsman.


Professor Richard Harding was the inaugural Inspector of Custodial Services in Western Australia (2000-2008).  Since leaving that position he has advised extensively on correction policy and practice, and has been an expert witness in prisoner/detainee litigation.  This policy advice has included a 2008 report, co-authored with Neil Morgan, for the Australian Human Rights Commission on Implementing the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture: Options for Australia.   At various times he has been Director of the Australian Institute of Criminology, Foundation Director of the Crime Research Centre at the University of Western Australia, and a member of the Australia Law Reform Commission.  In 2013 he received the ANZSOC Distinguished Criminologist award.


Dr Anita Mackay has been researching the compliance of Australian prisons with Australia’s international human rights law obligations since commencing her doctorate in 2011.  She has been a lecturer at La Trobe Law School since August 2016.  Dr Mackay was a Research Assistant on the Applying Human Rights in Closed Environments: A Strategic Framework for Compliance Australian Research Council Linkage project (2011-2014) and co-edited Human Rights in Closed Environments with Bronwyn Naylor and Julie Debeljak (2014).  Prior to commencing her PhD, Dr Mackay worked for the Commonwealth Attorney-General’s Department in a range of policy areas, including family law and access to justice.

Playing for change:   Community justice innovation through design thinking prototypes

A/Prof Scott Beattie1, Prof Stephen Colbran1

1Cq University, Melbourne, Australia

In rapidly changing environments, community justice organisations often struggle to respond to new challenges, needing to implement new services, systems and procedures without the resources required for full stress-testing.   This paper argues that simulations, developed using design thinking methods, can play an important role in implementing change in a format that is accessible for community organisations.


Design thinking provides an accessible, human-centred approach to managing change in a through an approach than prioritises empathy and iterative development of innovation.    Design thinking places importance on the use of prototypes to test new systems and hypothetical simulations are one way to explore new practices and to stress-test procedures in a low-risk environment.  Using simulation design theory and ‘serious games’ exemplars this paper outlines the foundations of designing scenarios that create space of innovation.


Human-moderated simulations are an accessible and affordable method of prototyping that are amenable to feedback, rapid iteration and short cycles of development.   This accessibility also provides a nexus for engagement, within organisations and out to the community, in order to provide feedback into the design process and to crowd-source ideas and critical perspectives.


This paper will explore an example change scenario and provide guidance on how this may be adapted to a range of different community justice situations.  Design guidelines will allow participants to implement their own simulations and develop the use of this method in practice.


Associate Professor Scott Beattie has a career spanning both law and criminology and is presently building connections across these disciplines at CQ University.  He is strongly committed to community justice as a site of innovation and change in the field of criminal justice. Along with CQ University Law Dean Stephen Colbran he is working in the field of design thinking as a twenty first century skill for lawyers and justice professionals.

Scott is the head of program for the criminology degrees offered by CQ University, programs that place particular focus on community justice and design thinking methodology.

Feminism And Eco Criminology  An Intersection Of Feminism And ‘Green Criminology’ In Dealing With Environmental Issues In Indonesia

Vinita Susanti1

1Department of Criminology, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

The article entitled “Feminism and Eco-Criminology An Intersection of Feminism And ‘Green Criminology” in Dealing With Environmental isues in Indonesia’, explains how the intersection occurs in the case of environmental crime. Feminism Eco-Criminology discussed in Environmental Crime study, at Department of Criminology, FISIP UI, Depok, Indonesia, the discussion conical to the victims of environmental crimes, especially women who are victims of environmental crime. Example in this article are women farmers at Rembang Kendeng who keep the nature from development and mining of PT Semen Indonesia (Persero) TBK.

keywords : criminology, feminism, eco-criminology, crime againts environement, victim



Born in Bukittinggi, January 15, 1965.

Education; “Bhakti” Elementary School, “111” Junior High School and “3”High School , in Jakarta. Higher Education, Undergraduate and Master Degrees in the Criminology, and Doctorate in the Sociology from FISIP UI. Indonesia

Lecturer at FISIP UI, began as an Assistant Lecturer, in 1988. In 1991 until now, Permanent Lecturer in FISIP.

Position; served as Program Secretary for undergraduate and graduate in the Department of Criminology. Currently serving as head of the Department of Criminology Postgraduate Program, FISIP UI

Interest and active in various researches and community services, on topics of criminology, environment, women and adolescents.

In 2002, awarded, from Masri Singarimbun Research Award (MSRA) UGM, Yogyakarta; Prospective Attorney Teachers on ‘Gender and Legal Issues’.

In 2002, Representation UI, in the event of the JEN XII National Congress, Kespro as consultant to UI Student Sexual Health.

2010, Speaker in the SEBUMI International Conference activities in Malaysian SMEs.

2017, First Winner, Call Paper at the National Symposium and Criminal and Criminology Law IV Training, with the title of the paper “Penalty Against Women Acting” Murder “In the case of Sexual Crime (Study of Victims of Domestic Violence).

Publication of Books, Journals, Mass Media (Newspapers and Magazines) and Become a resource person in the media.

Restorative practices in the case of sexual violence: exploring the progress and main challenges internationally

Estelle Zinsstag

1LINC/KU Leuven, , Belgium

Sexual violence is a crime that is frequent and widespread but whose survivors in their great majority do not receive (adequate) redress. It is a crime with high levels of attrition, for which victims may feel discouraged or even punished for coming forward and sometimes re-victimised by criminal justice and other processes. It is a widely recognised fact that the current and traditional approach to ‘justice’ is limited in what it can offer to either victims or offenders of sexual crimes and that therefore many of their needs are not met.

The theory and practice of restorative justice is rapidly developing and offering some well-argued new avenues for dealing with crime in general and particularly with sexual violence. Research shows that victims/survivors are the main initiators and that practice is ahead of theory but in many cases needs to stay ‘under the radar’ due to various challenges to its implementation. It is the intention of this paper to examine restorative justice practice in more depth in this particular context, discuss the challenges encountered by this emerging practice and see how they could be addressed constructively.



Criminology and the New Harmscapes: Rethinking What We Do

Clifford Shearing


The 21st Century is a time of new worlds — shifting earth systems that the ‘Anthropocene’ references; cyberspaces; and artificial intelligences.  Associated with this is increased uncertainty.  This presentation explores conceptual challenges within criminology associated with these developments and emerging responses to them.


Bio to come

The “Sifting” of Restorative Justice in International Policies

Brunilda Pali


Criminology is trying to come to terms with coexisting different tendencies of punishment such as the so-called ‘punitive turn’ characterised by the rise of imprisonment and with the proliferation of so-called alternative social control agencies and approaches dealing with crime. One way to make sense of the existing contradictions has been the notion of ‘bifurcation’, which is based on the idea that more punitive and custodial sanctions are used for a particular type of offenders and offences while alternative and noncustodial sanctions – among which it is argued lies restorative justice – are used for another type, namely minor crimes and low-risk, first-time, and ‘deserving’ offenders. Although the notion of bifurcation appears intuitive, rather than talking about offenses, offenders, or penal sanctions as if they could be divided into two distinct types, my 3-years research project “Restorative utopias in dystopian times: The shaping of restorative justice in the European penal systems and policies” moves beyond theories of bifurcation, towards a mode of analysis that investigates complex rationalities and mechanisms that coexist in penal systems, by using restorative justice as a case study. The presentation will focus on the first results of the project, which aimed to identify through discourse analysis the sifting mechanisms and rationalities of restorative justice in international policies (UN, CoE, EU). The analogy of sifting alludes especially to the notion of ‘appropriateness’ (or eligibility, compatibility), but also notions like safeguards, principles, conditions, given that these notions come to define restorative justice’s limits and possibilities. The identification of such mechanisms and rationalities is important not only to understand the shaping of restorative justice within penal systems and policies, but also to shed light on its future development.


Bio to come



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