A clinical study on the effectiveness of a culturally-attuned Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in working with delinquent youth in Hong Kong

Chan Man-Ho, Wilson Chan1, F Keung2
1The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, Youth Crime Prevention Centre, 2University of Hong Kong, Department of Social Work and Social Administration ,

This presentation will document a clinical study on the effectiveness of a culturally-attuned CBT in reducing delinquent behaviors and negative emotions among Hong Kong delinquent youth. Twenty participants received CBT and routine counseling and another twenty youth received routine counseling only for a 12-month period. Findings suggest a significant time effect for many outcome measures in the experimental group: impulsivity, stress, gang affiliations and different types of delinquent behaviors. Fewer significant improvements were noted in the control group. Effect size statistics showed fairly high magnitude of change in outcome measures in experimental group (Cohen’s d=.64-.97).It appears that a culturally-attuned CBT may be effective for working with adolescents with delinquent behaviours in Hong Kong.

Mr Chan Man-Ho,  B.S.W (Hons), Postgraduate Dip. in Psychology, MSocS in Criminology, Accredited Mediator (Hong Kong/China), is currently Supervisor at The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, Hong Kong, SAR. He is leading youth at-risk services and having 20 years’ experience on working with young offender, drug addict and delinquent youth. Wilson has a strong linkage with government and non-government organizations in Hong Kong, he is serving as member of Action Committee Against Narcotics for giving advises on anti-drugs issues. He has published books related to youth delinquency, violence, sexual crime, drug issue and cybercrime. Wilson has also been regularly interviewed by media on youth crime issues.

Supporting services to arrested youth in Hong Kong: Implications to preventive strategies of reoffending

Mr  Man Ho Chan1, Ms Siu Chui  Lee1, Ms Ka In Wu1, Professor  Sing Wing Wong2

1The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, Youth Crime Prevention Centre, , 2City University of Hong Kong, Department of Applied Social Sciences,

The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups Youth Crime Prevention Centre and Hong Kong Police Force New Territories South Region jointly launched Project R in June 2012. This was the first operation of its type in Hong Kong, it provides specialized services including crisis intervention, counseling and family support services for the arrested youths (aged from 10-24), victims of the crime and their family members. After two years of experimentation, Project R collaborated with City University of Hong Kong to develop an assessment tool to assess the risk of youth reoffending and conduct evaluation on effectiveness of the intervention model. Based on pre-post test results, it found that social worker involvement (in terms of total number of service hours devoted) was significantly correlated to positive changes in client risk levels. A significant correlation was also found between social worker involvement (in terms of duration of services devoted) and positive changes in client risk levels. In summary, a client’s risk level of reoffending is more likely to decrease if he or she has received adequate service from social workers. Project R also filled the youth service gap in Hong Kong in helping the arrested youth and their parent. With evidence-based research, the Project R confirmed the effectiveness of the new intervention model titled “Tribasic Model of Delinquency Prevention: Five-Step Recovery through Life Coaching”. This paper highlights the service details of Project R, research impact of the evaluative study and illustrate with real cases study.

Ms Siu Chui Lee, is currently unit-in-charge at the Hong Kong Federation of youth Groups, Youth Crime Prevention Centre, Hong Kong, SAR. She has over 25 year’s social work practice experience working with family, children, delinquent youth, drug addict, and young offender. She is a member of Fight Crime Committee in Hong Kong. In addition, she is a social work field-work supervisor and registered as an Accredited Mediator in Hong Kong and China. Bob has published books on youth crime, youth law and drug addiction topics.

Ms Wu Ka In is an Youth Work Officer at Youth Crime Prevention Centre, the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, Hong Kong, SAR. Her area of expertise are delinquent youth, young offender, crime victim and drug abuser. Ka and her colleagues have obtained numerous funding to develop innovative services to address social issues, such as youth crime, re-offending prevention, drug addiction. She received her Master degree in Criminology and she was earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Social Work. In addition, she also a social work filed-work supervisor and registered as a Global Career Development Facilitator in USA.


Restorative Justice in Hong Kong: Its Role in Youth Justice and Future Challenges

Dennis Wong1
1City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, juvenile justice mainly embraces disciplinary welfare and rehabilitative philosophies. Various statutory measures are applied to juvenile offenders, including police cautioning, community-based treatment measures, and custodial sentencing options. However, no statutory restorative measure has yet been incorporated into the mainstream juvenile criminal justice system in Hong Kong. Several nongovernmental organizations are developing innovative strategies to prevent problematic adolescents from slipping into delinquency and are willing to apply restorative practices to help delinquents desist from engaging in criminal careers. This paper begins with main features of restorative justice, and highlights the preventive and correctional services for delinquents in Hong Kong. The paper questions the explanations offered by the government for not implementing restorative justice. By comparing restorative options for juveniles in some Asian jurisdictions, the study advocates for an earlier introduction of restorative justice for the benefits of juvenile offenders.

Dennis S W Wong is Professor of Criminology at the Department of Social and Behavioural Sciences and Associate Dean of College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong. His areas of teaching and research are criminology, youth studies, parents-child relationships, conflict management, and restorative justice. Dennis is honorary consultant on youth drugs abuse, school bullying, and offenders’ rehabilitation for governmental organizations in Hong Kong, Macau, and Singapore. He is an active member of Asian Criminological Society, Convenor of Asia Pacific Forum of Restorative Justice, and board member for a number of non-governmental organizations. Apart from publishing articles in local and international journals, he has published six books related to youth delinquency, school bullying, alternative to prosecution, mediation, and restorative justice.

Psycho-educational prospects for students in custody

Tim Corcoran1, Julie White2, Kitty Te Riele3, Alison Baker2, Philippa Moylan2
1School Of Education, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia, 2Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, 3University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia

Past research has established the critical importance of education to the lives of young people involved in justice processes. This paper overviews research recently undertaken in the Victorian youth justice system. The purpose of the project was to examine education for students in custody, both sentenced and on remand. The study worked with project partner, Parkville College, to examine how education can be improved for young people by investigating: i) what assists young people to take part in education while they are in custody, and ii) what helps young people to plan for education after release from custody? The paper starts by outlining present-day arrangements at the Parkville and Malmsbury Youth Justice Precincts and how these enable and/or constrain participation in schooling whilst in detention. This sets the context for the interviews undertaken with young people. Amongst other purposes, education should be about the pursuit of justice (i.e. fairness and equity) and if accepted as an ontological opportunity then education can invite the pursuit of a particular kind of justice – psychosocial justice. Subsequently, psycho-educational theory and practice is inextricably linked to issues of justice, both in how theory is invoked and in the ways practice is enacted. This orientation invites critical reconsideration of a range of activities in formal and informal educational settings with the young people’s interviews illustrating the complex and unfinished nature of relationality made available through education.

Tim Corcoran practiced for a decade as a Psychologist in two Queensland government departments (Education and Corrective Services) and brings a rich array of knowledge, skills and expertise to his ongoing research activities. His work has involved teaching, research and professional practice in Australia, the UK, Singapore and Iraq.  He edited Psychology in education: Critical theory~practice (2014, Sense Publishers), an international collection of contributions examining critical approaches to educational psychology.  More recently he co-edited Disability studies: Educating for inclusion (2015, Sense Publishers), Joint action: Essays in honour of John Shotter (2016, Routledge) and Critical Educational Psychology (2017, Wiley).

Bringing in the Bystander: Youth Bystander Representations and Sexual Assault Prevention Education

Sarah Whitney1
1Penn State University, Erie, United States

In American higher education sexual assault prevention programs, a paradigm shift from risk-reduction to bystander education is underway.  Galvanized by the Obama administration’s 2011 “Dear Colleague” letter admonishing higher educations to prioritize ending gender discrimination and applying Title IX legislation, universities are changing the way students are taught about sexual assault.  Training programs now emphasize the active intervention of the bystander into the potential victim/perpetrator dyad. While the term “bystander” might simply seem synonymous with “witness” or “observer,” in the language of sexual assault prevention it takes on additional meaning, depicting someone who is empowered to disrupt a violent scenario.   Within young adult literature (YA), a growing corpus of bystander novels similarly contend that teenagers who witness sexual assault can make pro-social choices to stop violence.  This project analyzes fictional youth bystanders, focusing upon works based upon real-life American criminal cases.  One, drawn from the Glen Ridge rape case in which a girl with disabilities was subject to group sexual assault, traces the consequences of ineffective (silent) bystanders.  The second, inspired by the Steubenville high school case, in which a group sexual assault was shared widely on social media, features a bystander empowered to seek justice even at her own social cost.  I consider the applied value in including bystander novels in training curricula, arguing they can create empathy, identify scripts within rape culture, and provide pathways and encouragement for young adults to intervene in anti-sexual violence work.

Sarah Whitney is a faculty member in Women’s Studies and English at Penn State University, Erie (The Behrend College).  Her research investigates how women and girls use narrative to depict the trauma of sexual violence.   Her recent book is Splattered Ink: Postfeminist Gothic Fiction and Gendered Violence (University of Illinois, 2016).  Her current book manuscript explores how young adult literature (YA) depicts rape.  Her favorite courses to teach are her criminology seminar, Sexual and Domestic Violence, and her freshman course in Fashion, Gender and Identity.


Improving the management of young people with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and other brain impairments in an Australian detention centre

Hayley Passmore1,3, Raewyn Mutch1,2,3, Sharyn Burns4, Guy Hall5, Jonathan Carapetis1, Carol Bower1
1Telethon Kids Institute, Subiaco, Australia, 2Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, Australia, 3The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, 4Curtin University, Perth, Australia, 5Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

Health and justice professionals across Australia are urging for an increase in services to better support young people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and other brain impairments involved with the justice system. Knowledge of FASD among young people sentenced to a period of detention is increasing, with a prevalence study ascertaining that 36% of young people sentenced to detention have FASD, and 89% are severely impaired in at least one domain of brain function. However, to date there has been no investigation into the capacity of custodial staff to identify and manage young people in Australian detention centres with FASD or similar impairments, nor have there been published interventions aiming to develop environments appropriate for those with FASD in detention.

The current knowledge and practices relating to FASD and other brain impairments among the custodial workforce at the only youth detention centre in Western Australia were determined using mixed methods. These data informed the development and evaluation of training resources (a series of short, educational videos) aiming to upskill the custodial workforce in the management strategies most appropriate for young people in detention with such impairments. The efficacy of these training resources will be discussed, with particular relevance to improving staff knowledge and awareness of impairments, and their receptiveness to adapting management strategies according to the needs of young people in their care.

Given the high rates of impairment among young people in detention in Australia, all staff involved in the care of detained young people should receive comprehensive training about FASD and other brain impairments and appropriate management strategies.

Hayley Passmore is a PhD Candidate at the Telethon Kids Institute and School of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Western Australia. Hayley has qualifications in Criminology and Psychology. She has previous experience working with adult offenders and their families, and with vulnerable children and families across Western Australia. Hayley currently works in the Alcohol, Pregnancy and FASD research group at the Telethon Kids Institute, and is in the final year of her PhD on the workforce development component of the NHMRC funded project titled ‘A feasibility study of screening, diagnosis and workforce development to improve the management of youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the justice system’. Hayley also teaches Criminology units at the School of Law, Murdoch University.

Harm goes Mainstream: The Terror of Leisure

Leanne Mcrae1
1Curtin University, Morley, Australia

Discourses of harm within criminology have traditionally circulated through the paradigm of ‘youth’ with concerns emanating in leisure studies around excessive drug taking, drinking, or extreme sports like BASE jumping and parkour. This paper suggests that harm has gone mainstream. It is no longer associated with traditionally marginal ‘youth’ practices. Instead, in the age of terror, harm and deviance have re-located within the mainstream. Terror has moved into spaces of leisure to recode harm in the everyday. ISIS has consistently chosen spaces of and for leisure to attack people in the everyday. The Reina Nightclub in Istanbul, The Bataclan Theatre in Paris, the Ariana Grande Concert in Manchester attacks have shifted terror from the work-based attacks of 9/11 on the Twin Towers and Pentagon, as people arrived for their work day, the 7/7 London Underground and 2004 Madrid train bombings during the rush-hour commute, to consumer spaces of leisure where people are engaging in activities that blur the edges of the mainstream and alternative. This argument suggests that in the post-crash era, the rise of rentier capitalism and decline of traditional employment, leisure spaces have become instrumental places where meanings are struggled over, and in the case of terrorism, it activates an ‘exchange of violences’ that is at the heart of capitalism.

Dr Leanne McRae is a Research Officer with Curtin University with over 30 publications reflecting her interdisciplinary origins within cultural studies in such areas as postcolonial studies, popular culture studies, men’s studies, feminism, pedagogy, city imaging, fashion, popular memory studies, popular music studies, critical disability studies, and physical cultural studies. Her first publication; The Terror of Leisure: Spaces for Harm in a Post-Crash Era is about to be released by Emerald Publishers in the UK.

Fathers of the Year: the Queensland Police Force as a leader in juvenile justice in the years before Fitzgerald

Paul Bleakley1
1University Of New England, Armidale, Australia

In spite of its reputation as a department riddled with corruption and misconduct for much of the 20th Century, the Queensland Police Force enjoyed a well-deserved reputation as international trailblazers in the field of youth justice. Like the majority of police forces around Australia, Queensland police used the broad spectrum provisions of the Vagrants Act and other summary offences laws to discipline and, at times, harass young Queenslanders throughout the earlier half of the century; for the most part, this policy shifted dramatically upon the ascension of Francis Erich Bischof to the position of Police Commissioner. Widely considered to be the founding father of corruption in the Queensland Police Force, Bischof’s establishment of the state’s Juvenile Aid Bureau (JAB) has been lauded for its revolutionary introduction of the counsel-and-caution approach to youth crime. Though the JAB’s use of discretionary enforcement was heavily criticised in the reformist Whitrod era (1970-76), analysis of youth recidivism data indicates that the policy was an effective strategy in diverting young people from early interactions with the judicial system. While the Queensland Police Force faced a myriad of other problems associated with graft and cronyism, it is argued that its adoption of a counsel-and-caution policy fundamentally improved its approach to young people over the course of the 20th Century and stands as the single greatest contribution to Queensland policing of the Bischof era.

Paul Bleakley is a third year doctoral student who is currently attending the University of New England. With an academic focus on historical criminology, his interests are in police corruption and its impact on the community. A former journalist and news editor at major publications in both the United Kingdom and Australia, Paul worked primarily as a correspondent concentrating on crime and politics. He has also published work exploring the development of the modern counterculture, sexuality and popular culture.

Mini Me: The Adultification of the Victorian Juvenile Justice System

Natalia Antolak-saper1
1Faculty Of Law, Monash University  , Beaumaris, Australia

In May 2017, the Victorian State Government introduced significant reforms to the juvenile justice system to, inter alia, ensure that ‘serious young offenders are held accountable for their actions and punished for their crimes’ (White, 2017). These reforms were introduced predominantly through the enactment of the Children and Justice Legislation (Youth Justice Reform) Act 2017 (Vic) (‘the 2017 Act’) and included the following changes to the juvenile justice system: the introduction of youth control orders which would facilitate the imposition of curfews and restrict a youth offender’s use of social media;  increase the maximum penalties for certain offences from three to four years; ensure that young offenders who commit serious crimes be heard in adult court rather than the Children’s Court of Victoria; and disclose information pertaining to the identity of youth offenders in certain circumstances. These changes herald a shift towards the increasing adultification of the juvenile justice system (Merlo and Benekos, 2010); a shift that poses significant challenges to an effective juvenile justice system that recognises that children who offend ought to be treated differently to adults (Taylor, 2016). This paper considers these reforms and suggests that they are inconsistent with the best interests of the child, and signal a disregard of the experiences in cognate jurisdictions that have embraced less punitive juvenile justice reforms. In doing so, it is hoped that a more appropriate framework for the Victorian juvenile justice system is developed and implemented.

Natalia Antolak-Saper is a Lecturer in the Faculty of Law, Monash University. Natalia graduated from Monash University with a Bachelor of Arts, majoring in Criminology, and a Bachelor of Laws with First Class Honours. She completed her professional training with Lander & Rogers Lawyers, and was admitted to practice as a Barrister and Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Victoria and of the High Court of Australia. In 2012 she received an Australian Postgraduate Award scholarship and commenced her PhD which examined the extent to which the media impacts upon sentencing policy. She has published articles on diverse topics including directed verdicts, bail conditions, and gambling regulation. She teaches criminal law and trusts in the LLB and JD programs at Monash. Her research areas are in comparative criminal law and procedure, and domestic and international sentencing.


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