Effectiveness of Post-Incarceration Supervision: A Multi-Level Analysis of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Offender Outcomes on Parole

Mrs Jennifer Galouzis1,2, Professor Denny Meyer3

1Justice Nsw, Sydney, Australia,

2University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia,

3Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia

Current theoretical models rely on the skills of officers to establish working relationships with offenders to affect successful outcomes of parole. Therefore, it is imperative to measure and monitor the effectiveness of supervising officers. This study explores the predictors of parole outcomes (revocation and reimprisonment) and the importance of supervising officer effectiveness based on the proportion of variance in parole revocation and reimprisonment explained by parole supervision officers and parole supervision offices. This research employed a three-level hierarchical linear model with offender (level 1), supervising officer (level 2) and supervising office (level 3). The sample consisted of 5517 offenders supervised by 487 officers across 57 supervising offices. Results demonstrated that the effectiveness of the supervising officer is related to differences in offender outcomes, including parole revocation and reimprisonment, for non-Indigenous offenders only. The results are promising, as they support the premise that supervising officers can operate as agents of change, whose relationship with the offender, especially non-Indigenous offenders, can influence offender outcomes following release from prison. However, further research and consultation is required to understand why current models of community supervision are less effective for Indigenous offenders and how service delivery can be adapted to ensure it is responsive to the needs and experiences of Indigenous offenders.


Jennifer Galouzis is the Director, Corrections Research, Evaluation and Statistics in the Department of Justice in NSW, Australia and responsible for driving both the research agenda and performance measurement process for Corrections in NSW. Jennifer’s research interests are in the social and cultural climate of prisons and the measurement of prison performance. She has published papers in the areas of violence, sex offender treatment and risk of re-imprisonment.

Jennifer is also currently completing her PhD in the area of prison social climate and its impact of offender trajectories through the University of Melbourne.

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